American History 102 Final


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Union Pacific For this the building of transcontinental railroads and the destruction of the buffalo were chiefly responsible. Thousands were butchered to feed the gangs of laborers engaged in building the Union Pacific Railroad. The Union Pacific and Central Pacific were given, in addition to their land grants (5 square miles on each side of their right-of-way for each mile) , loans in the form of government bonds-from $16,000 to $48,000 for each mile of track laid, depending on the difficulty of the terrain. The Union Pacific was from Nebraska westward to San Francisco and employed primarily Civil War Veterans and Irish Immigrants and built 1,086 miles of track. Jay Gould combined the Kansas Pacific and the Missouri Pacific with the Union Pacific.
Central Pacific Railroads The Central Pacific was controlled by four businessmen: Collis Huntington (“scrupulously dishonest” but an excellent manager); Leland Stanford, a Sacramento grocer and politician; Mark Hopkins, a hardware merchant; and Charles Crocker, a hulking, relentless driver of men who had come to California during the gold rush and made a small fortune as a merchant and they employed primarily Chinese immigrants to build the railroad. It consisted of 689 miles of track, far less than the Union Pacific. In the long run the wasteful way in which the Central Pacific was built hurt the road severely. It was ill constructed, over grades too steep and around curves too sharp, and burdened with debts that were too large.
Patrons of husbandry (the Grange & Grangers) (Pages 475 & 488) The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry, also simply styled the Grange, is a fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being. Founded in 1867 after the Civil War, it is the oldest surviving agricultural organization in America, though now much diminished from the over one million members it had in its peak in the 1890s through the 1950s. In addition to serving as a center for many farming communities, the Grange was an effective advocacy group for farmers and their agendas, including fighting railroad monopolies and advocating rural mail deliveries. Indeed, the word "grange" itself comes from a Latin word for grain, and is related to a "granary" or generically, a farm. There were seven co-founders of the Grange: Oliver Hudson Kelley, William Saunders, Francis M. McDowell, John Trimble, Aaron B. Grosh, John R. Thompson, and William M. Ireland. President Andrew Johnson sent Oliver Hudson Kelley to the South to collect agricultural data. As a Northerner, Kelley was greeted with suspicion. However, he was a Freemason, an affiliation that overcame sectional differences. Kelley saw the need for an organization that would bring farmers together and advance their interests. After consultations with the other Founders, the Grange was born in 1867. The first Grange was Potomac Grange #1 in Washington, D.C., extant today.
Southern Pacific railroad It was a Californian corporation. Owned and managed by the same group as in Central Pacific. By February of 1883 it extended its route from Southern Texas to New Orleans. It ran from San Francisco to New Orleans by way of Yuma and El Paso and was completed in 1883. Since Harriman already controlled the Union Pacific and Southern Pacific, the plan resulted in a virtual monopoly of western railroads.
Interstate Commerce Commission (Job and why it was not effective) (Pages 475 – 476) The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. This was the nation’s first regulatory agency. The agency was abolished in 1995, and the agency's remaining functions were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board. The Commission's five members were appointed by the President with the consent of the United States Senate. This was the first independent agency (or so-called Fourth Branch). The ICC's original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers. The creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission was the result of widespread and longstanding anti-railroad agitation. Western farmers, specifically those of the Grange Movement, were the dominant force behind the unrest, but Westerners generally — especially those in rural areas — believed that the railroads possessed economic power that they systematically abused. A central issue was rate discrimination between similarly situated customers and communities. Other potent issues included alleged attempts by railroads to obtain influence over city and state governments and the widespread practice of granting free transportation in the form of yearly passes to opinion leaders (elected officials, newspaper editors, ministers, and so on) so as to dampen any opposition to railroad practices. Some behavior was presumably less common; the reporter Charles Edward Russell claimed that the railroad that served his hometown had refused to ship newsprint to a newspaper editor because the editor had attacked the railroad in print. Various sections of the Interstate Commerce Act banned "personal discrimination" and gave the Commission the power to determine maximum "reasonable" rates. Equally significant, the Elkins Act required that rates be published. Eventually, when this piece of (economic) anti-discrimination legislation was constitutionally challenged, the United States Supreme Court ruled it to be constitutional. And signally (for the future of anti-discrimination legal challenges) the Court founded its ruling upon the existence of the then new 14th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, and its equal protection clause. In the Supreme Court's view, the U. S. Congress through legislation could outlaw an act of (economic) discrimination against an individual or corporation if the act of discrimination constituted for the affected person(s) a failure by the discriminator to afford the affected person(s) the equal application (protection) of the rules or laws. The Commission had a troubled start because the law that created it failed to give it adequate enforcement powers. Its powers were later expanded and subsequent legislation permitted the ICC to set minimum as well as maximum rates. Later legislation removed railroad safety from the states. A long-standing controversy was how to interpret language in the Act that banned charging more for a shorter "haul" than a longer one. Enforced in a literal manner, this clause could have driven many railroads out of business. Between 1910 and 1934, the ICC had the authority to regulate interstate telephone services. (The very name of the agency suggests that lawmakers may have planned for it to become the "single roof" over many disparate regulatory efforts.) In 1934, this authority was transferred to the new Federal Communications Commission.
Alexander Graham Bell (Telephone) (Page 464-465) (Born in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK - March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) He was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the telephone in 1876. Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics and he was interested in the education of the deaf. Bell had invented a mine detector which was used in an attempt to locate a bullet in the abdomen of President James A. Garfield. It was unsuccessful probably due to the metal bed springs.
Henry Bessemer (Page 461) Sir Henry Bessemer (19 January 1813 – 15 March 1898) was an English engineer and inventor. Bessemer's name is chiefly known in connection with the Bessemer process for the manufacture of steel. William Kelly from Kentucky also collaborated with Bessemer in this invention. The invention of the Bessemer process took place in the 1850s. Though this process is no longer commercially used, at the time of its invention it was of enormous industrial importance because it lowered the cost of production steel, leading to steel being widely substituted for cast iron. Bessemer's attention was drawn to the problem of steel manufacture in the course of an attempt to improve the construction of guns. Steel was so expensive to manufacture that it could not be used for bulky products until the invention in the 1850’s of the Bessemer process, perfected independently by Henry Bessemer, and Englishman, and William Kelly of Kentucky. Bessemer and Kelly discovered that a stream of air directed into a mass of molten iron caused the carbon and other impurities to combine with oxygen and burn off.
Andrew Carnegie (Pages 467, 469, 472, 578) He was born in Scotland in 1835 and came to the U.S. when he was 12 years old. He led the industry of iron and steel. His first job was as a bobbin boy in a cotton mill. Then he became a messenger boy, later a telegrapher, to private secretary, to railroad manager. He saved all his money to invest it later on. He decided to specialize in the iron business. Where other steelmen built new plants in good times, he preferred to expand in bad times, when it cost far less to do so. He grasped the importance of technological improvements. He was skeptical of the Bessemer process at first; once he became convinced of its practicality he adopted it enthusiastically. In 1875 he built the J. Edgar Thomas Steel Works, named after a president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, his biggest customer. He employed chemist and other specialists. He was a merciless competitor. He sold rails by paying “commissions” to railroad purchasing agents. By 1890 the Carnegie Steel Company dominated the industry. Profits soared. He longed to retire to devote himself to philanthropic work. He believed that great wealth entailed social responsibilities and that it was a disgrace to die rich. When J.P. Morgan offered him to buy him out, he agreed. In 1901 Morgan put together United States Steel, the world’s first billion-dollar corporation.” The owners of Carnegie Steel received $492 million, of which $250 million went to Carnegie himself. Andrew Carnegie represents to some what is the idea of the American dream. He was an immigrant from Scotland who came to America and became successful. He is not only known for his successes but his enormous amounts of philanthropist works, not only to charities but also to promote democracy and independence to colonized countries. He published the “Gospel of Wealth,” which involved responsibilities as well as privileges. A rich man was merely a trustee of the wealth that society helped him amassed. He gave away $350 million and he founded libraries, universities, etc.
The Platt Amendment (Page 601) A law, passed in 1901 and superseding the Teller Amendment, which stipulated the conditions for the withdrawal of American forces from Cuba; it also transferred ownership of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. The amendment was a true compromise: it safeguarded American interests while granting to the Cubans real self-government on internal matters. In May 1902, the United States turned over the reins of government to the new republic. True friendship did not result. Although American Troops occupied Cuba only once more, in 1906, and then at the specific request of Cuban authorities, the United States repeatedly used the threat of intervention to coerce the Cuban Government. Cuba and others
John D. Rockefeller (Pages 469-470) (Born in NY, July 8, 1839 – May 23, 1937) He was an American industrialist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897. Standard Oil began as an Ohio partnership formed by John D. Rockefeller, his brother William Rockefeller, Henry Flagler, Jabez Bostwick, chemist Samuel Andrews, and a silent partner, Stephen V. Harkness. As kerosene and gasoline grew in importance, Rockefeller's wealth soared, and he became the world's richest man and first American worth more than a billion dollars. He is often regarded as the richest person in history. As Carnegie, Rockefeller was an organizer, he knew little about the technology of petroleum. His forte was meticulous attention to detail. He competed ruthlessly, not to crush them but to persuade them to join with him, to share the business peaceably and rationally so that all could profit. Having achieved his monopoly, he established and structured it by creating a new type of business organization, the trust. Rockefeller spent the last 40 years of his life in retirement. His fortune was mainly used to create the modern systematic approach of targeted philanthropy with foundations that had a major effect on medicine, education, and scientific research. His foundations pioneered the development of medical research, and were instrumental in the eradication of hookworm and yellow fever. He is also the founder of both the University of Chicago and Rockefeller University. He was a devoted Northern Baptist and supported many church-based institutions throughout his life. Rockefeller adhered to total abstinence from alcohol and tobacco throughout his life.
Meat Packing Industry (Page 573) Congress passed meat inspection and pure food and drug legislation. In 1906 Upton Sinclair published The Jungle, a devastating expose of the filthy conditions in the Chicago slaughterhouses. Sinclair was more interested in a socialist tract than he was in meat inspection, but his book, a best seller raised a storm against the packers. After Roosevelt read The Jungle he sent to officials to Chicago to investigate. Roosevelt compromised with opponents of meat inspection cheerfully, despite his loud denunciations of the evils under attack. Yet he went along with the packers’ demand that the government pay the costs of inspection, though he believed that “the only way to secure efficiency is by the imposition upon the packers of a fee.” The report was so shocking that its publication would “be well-night ruinous to our export trade in meat.” He threatened to release the report, however, until Congress acted. After a hot fight the meat inspection bill passed. The Pure Food and Drug Act, forbidding the manufacture and sale of adulterated and fraudulent labeled products, rode through Congress on the coattails of this measure.
Thomas A. Edison (Pages 465 & 471) (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) He was an American inventor, scientist and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and the motion picture camera. His most significant achievement was the incandescent lamp, or electric light bulb in 1879. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" (now Edison, New Jersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large teamwork to the process of invention, and therefore is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. Edison is considered one of the most prolific inventors in history, holding 1,093 U.S. patents in his name, as well as many patents in the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. He is credited with numerous inventions that contributed to mass communication &, in particular, telecommunications. His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a telegraph operator. Edison originated the concept and implementation of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories – a crucial development in the modern industrialized world. His first power station was on Manhattan Island, New York.
Christopher L. Scholes (Typewriter) (Wikipedia) (February 14, 1819 - February 17, 1890) He was an American inventor who invented the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today. He was also a newspaper publisher and Wisconsin politician. Typewriters had been invented as early as 1714 by Henry Mill and reinvented in various forms throughout the 1800s. It was to be Sholes, however, who invented the first one to be commercially successful. Sholes returned to Milwaukee and continued to work on new improvements for the typewriter throughout the 1870s, which included the QWERTY keyboard (1873). James Densmore had suggested splitting up commonly used letter combinations in order to solve a jamming problem caused by the slow method of recovering from a keystroke: weights, not springs, returned all parts to the "rest" position. This concept was later refined by Sholes and the resulting QWERTY layout is still used today on both typewriters and English language computer keyboards, although the jamming problem no longer exists. It was marketed by the Remington Arms Company.
Blacklist (Class notes) Agitators’ names were circulated to all companies in that way they will not be hired. At this time individualism was still the ideal. The “agitators” demanded better working conditions and encouraged employees to join labor movements. Terrence V. Powderly was the Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of Labor and because he fought for the workers’ rights, he was blacklisted. Labor Unions existed since the 1800s; however, the workers were relatively inactive about labor concerns and not very class conscious. The Depression of 1837 was a disaster and a setback to Labor Unions.
Sherman Anti-trust Act (page 476) A federal law, passed in 1890 that outlawed monopolistic organizations that functioned to restrain trade. The Sherman Antitrust Act (July 2, 1890, ch. 647, 26 Stat. 209, 15 U.S.C. § 1–7) requires the United States Federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies and organizations suspected of violating the Act. It was the first Federal statute to limit cartels and monopolies, and today still forms the basis for most antitrust litigation by the United States federal government. However, for the most part, politicians were unwilling to use the law until Theodore Roosevelt's Presidency (1901-1909). The Sherman Act was passed in 1890 and was named after its author, Senator John Sherman, an Ohio Republican, the chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. This Act was ill enforced and vaguely worked. The Sherman Act followed Ohio's Valentine Anti-Trust Act (1898). After passing in the Senate on April 8, 1890 by a vote of 51-1, the Sherman Act passed unanimously (242-0) in the House of Representatives on June 20, 1890, and was then signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison on July 2, 1890. Despite its name, the Act has fairly little to do with "trusts". Around the world, what U.S. lawmakers and attorneys call "Antitrust" is more commonly known as "competition law." The purpose of the act was to oppose the combination of entities that could potentially harm competition, such as monopolies or cartels. Its reference to trusts today is anachronistic. At the time of its passage, the trust was synonymous with monopolistic practice, because the trust was a popular way for monopolists to hold their businesses, and a way for cartel participants to create enforceable agreements. In 1879, C. T. Dodd, an attorney for the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, had devised a new type of trust agreement to overcome Ohio state prohibitions against corporations owning stock in other corporations. A trust is a centuries old form of a contract whereby one party entrusts their property to a second party. The property is then used to benefit the first party. The law attempts to prevent the artificial raising of prices by restriction of trade or supply. In other words, innocent monopoly, or monopoly achieved solely by merit, is perfectly legal, but acts by a monopolist to artificially preserve his status, or nefarious dealings to create a monopoly, are not. Put another way, it has sometimes been said that the purpose of the Sherman Act is not to protect competitors, but rather to protect competition and the competitive landscape. As explained by the U.S. Supreme Court in Spectrum Sports, Inc. v. McQuillan: "The purpose of the [Sherman] Act is not to protect businesses from the working of the market; it is to protect the public from the failure of the market. The law directs itself not against conduct which is competitive, even severely so, but against conduct which unfairly tends to destroy competition itself. This focus of U.S. competition law, on protection of competition rather than competitors, is not necessarily the only possible focus or purpose of competition law. For example, it has also been said that competition law in the European Community (EC) tends to protect the competitors in the marketplace, even at the expense of market efficiencies and consumers. One of the earliest invocations of the Act was in 1894, against the American Railway Union led by Eugene V. Debs, with the intent to settle the Pullman Strike. Several years would pass before the first use of the Act against its intended perpetrator, corporate monopolies. President Theodore Roosevelt used the Act extensively in his antitrust campaign, including dividing the Northern Securities Company. President William Howard Taft used the Act to split the American Tobacco Company.
Open Door Policy (Pages 604-605) A policy propounded by Secretary of State John Hay in 1899, affirming the territorial integrity of China and a policy of free trade. For the United States to join in the dismemberment of China was politically impossible because of anti-imperialist feeling, so Hay sought to protect American interests by clever diplomacy. In a series of “Open Door” notes (1899) he asked the powers to agree to respect the trading rights of all countries and to impose no discriminatory duties within their spheres of influence. In reality, nothing had been accomplished. Nevertheless, Hay’s action marked a revolutionary departure from the traditional American policy of isolation.
The Boxers (Righteous Fists of harmony)
National Labor Union (Pages 477-479) (8 hour shifts, factory laws of safety and sanitation, use of arbitration, civil service reform, women’s’ rights, national debt) The National Labor Union (NLU) was the first national labor federation in the United States. Founded in 1866 and dissolved in 1873, it paved the way for other organizations, such as the Knights of Labor and the AFL (American Federation of Labor). It was led by William H. Sylvis. The National Labor Union followed the unsuccessful efforts of labor activists to form a national coalition of local trade unions. The National Labor Union sought instead to bring together all of the national labor organizations in existence, as well as the "eight-hour leagues" established to press for the eight-hour day, to create a national federation that could press for labor reforms and help found national unions in those areas where none existed. The new organization favored arbitration over strikes and called for the creation of a national labor party as an alternative to the two existing parties. The NLU drew much of its support from construction unions and other groups of skilled employees, but also invited the unskilled and farmers to join. On the other hand, it campaigned for the exclusion of Chinese workers from the United States and made only halting, ineffective efforts to defend the rights of women and blacks. African-American workers established their own Colored National Labor Union as an adjunct, but their support of the Republican Party and the prevalent racism of the citizens of the United States limited its effectiveness. The NLU achieved an early success, but one that proved less significant in practice. In 1868, Congress passed the statute for which the Union had campaigned so hard, providing the eight-hour day for government workers. Many government agencies, however, reduced wages at the same time that they reduced hours. While President Grant ordered federal departments not to reduce wages, his order was ignored by many. The NLU also obtained similar legislation in a number of states, such as New York and California, but discovered that loopholes in the statute made them unenforceable or ineffective. The Union boasted 700,000 members at its height. It collapsed when it adopted the policy that electoral politics, with a particular emphasis on monetary reform, was the only means for advancing its agenda. The organization was spectacularly unsuccessful at the polls and lost virtually all of its union supporters, many of whom moved on to the newly formed Knights of Labor. The depression of the 1870s, which drove down union membership generally, was the final factor contributing to the end of the NLU.
Molly McGuires (Wikipedia) The Molly Maguires were members of a secret Irish organization. Many historians believe the "Mollies" were present in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania in the United States from approximately the time of the American Civil War until a series of sensational arrests and trials in the years 1876−1878. Evidence that the Molly Maguires were responsible for coalfield crimes and kidnapping in the U.S. rests largely upon allegations of one powerful industrialist, and the testimony of one Pinkerton detective. Fellow prisoners also testified against the alleged Molly Maguires, but some believe these witnesses may have been coerced or bribed. There is little doubt that some Irish miners conspired to resist their exploitative conditions; however, the trusts seem to have focused almost exclusively upon the Molly Maguires for criminal prosecution. This may be a consequence of Irish miners acting as the core of militant union activism during a bitter strike provoked by a twenty percent wage reduction. Violence during the period was widespread, with Irish Catholic miners who reportedly made up the secret organization also falling victim. Some aspects of the investigations, trials, and executions are unseemly. Information passed from the Pinkerton detective, intended only for the detective agency and their client — the most powerful industrialist of the region — was apparently also provided to vigilantes who ambushed and murdered miners suspected of being Molly Maguires. The vigilantes did not spare the miners’ families. The industrialist standing to gain financially from the destruction of the striking union acted as prosecutor of some of the alleged Molly Maguires at their trials. Molly history is sometimes presented as the prosecution of an underground movement that was motivated by personal vendettas, and sometimes as a struggle between organized labor and powerful industrial forces. Whether membership in the Molly organization overlapped union membership to any appreciable extent remains open to conjecture. Much remains uncertain, for the Molly Maguires left virtually no evidence of their existence, and nearly everything that we know about them was written by biased contemporary observers.
Railroad Strike of 1877 (page 481) In 1877 a great railroad strike convulsed the nation. It began on Baltimore and Ohio system in response to a 10% wage cut and spread to other eastern lines and then throughout the West until about two-thirds of the railroad mileage of the country had been shut down. This happened after the companies decided to stop offering low rates and fares. Violence broke out and rail yards were put to the torch, business men formed militia companies to patrol the streets of Chicago and other cities. Eventually President Hayes sent federal troops to the trouble spots to restore order, and the strike collapsed. There had been no real danger of revolution, but the violence and destruction of the strike had been w/o precedent in America.
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor (page 477- 479) The Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, best known simply as the Knights of Labor was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th Century. It was founded in 1869 by a group of Philadelphia garment workers headed by Uriah S. Stephens. They developed a concept closely resembling modern industrial unionism. They welcomed blacks (in segregated locals), women, and immigrants. They also accepted unskilled workers as well as artisans. The 8 hour day was one of their basic demands. Higher pay would inevitably follow. It reached a peak membership of nearly three-quarters of a million members by the middle of the 1880s, before beginning a period of rapid decline in size and influence, being supplanted by the American Federation of Labor in the 1890s. Remnants of the Knights of Labor continued in existence until 1949, when the group's last 50 member local was absorbed into the American Federation of Labor.
May Day Strikes of 1886 (Wikipedia) On May 1, 1886, 350,000 workers staged a nationwide work stoppage to demand the adoption of a standard eight-hour workday. Forty thousand workers struck in Chicago, Illinois; ten thousand struck in New York; eleven thousand struck in Detroit, Michigan. As many as thirty-two thousand workers struck in Cincinnati, Ohio, although some of these workers had been out on strike for several months before May 1. The purpose of the May Day Strike was to bring pressure on employers and state governments to create an eight-hour workday. During this period, workers commonly spent twelve or more hours of each day at work. Unions, especially the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada -- the predecessor of the American Federation of Labor, encouraged workers to strike on May 1, 1886, to demonstrate the need for an eight-hour day. The strike was to last a single day, although numerous workers remained away from their jobs for several weeks. Not all unions condoned the May Day Strike. The Knights of Labor preferred peaceful negotiations and boycotts to secure better working conditions for employees. Terence Powderly, the leader of the Knights of Labor at this time, prohibited Knights of Labor members from participating. Despite Powderly's proclamation, thousands of his union's members struck on May 1. Numerous members of the Knights of Labor opposed the more peaceful tactics of Powderly. The May Day Strike had some success. In Cincinnati, some employers, hoping to avoid the strike, granted their workers an eight-hour day. Other employers increased workers' pay. Throughout the late 1800s, May Day Strikes became commonplace. Very quickly similar strikes occurred around the world. The May Day Strikes helped convince United States President Grover Cleveland to implement Labor Day, a holiday that celebrates the American worker. Numerous countries still celebrate May Day today.
Haymarket Square (page 479) The Haymarket affair (also known as the Haymarket riot or Haymarket massacre) was a disturbance that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at the Haymarket Square in Chicago, and began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of eight police officers and an unknown number of civilians. In the internationally publicized legal proceedings that followed, eight anarchists were tried for murder. Four were put to death, and one committed suicide in prison. The Haymarket affair is generally considered to have been an important influence on the origin of international May Day observances for workers. In popular literature, this event inspired the caricature of "a bomb-throwing anarchist." The causes of the incident are still controversial, although deeply polarized attitudes separating business and working class people in late 19th century Chicago are generally acknowledged as having precipitated the tragedy and its aftermath. The site of the incident was designated as a Chicago Landmark on March 25, 1992. The Haymarket Martyrs' Monument in nearby Forest Park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and as a National Historic Landmark on February 18, 1997.
American Federation of Labor (Page 479-481) Due to all the incidents with the 8 hour agitation and because the Knight of Labor tended to be associated with violence and radicalism, the Knights’ place was taken by the AFL, a combination of national craft unions established in 1886. The AFL was a reactionary organization. Its principal leaders were Adolph Strasser & Samuel Gompers of the Cigarmakers Union. The chief weapon of the federation was the strike, which it used to win concessions from employers and to attract recruits. Gompers encouraged workers to make “intelligent use of the ballot” in order to advance in their interests. The AFL worked for things such as the 8 hour days, employers’ liability, and mine safety laws, but it avoided direct involvement in politics. AFL eliminated child labor, supported political candidates, individuals could not join local unions, they had no problem with Capitalism, collected high dues and used them to support their members, adopted 8 hours shifts and high wages. The AFL was the largest union grouping in the United States for the first half of the twentieth century, even after the creation of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) by unions that were expelled by the AFL in 1937 over its opposition to industrial unionism. While the Federation was founded and dominated by craft unions throughout the first fifty years of its existence, many of its craft union affiliates turned to organizing on an industrial union basis to meet the challenge from the CIO in the 1940s. In 1955, the AFL merged with its longtime rival, the Congress of Industrial Organizations, to form the AFL-CIO, a federation which remains in place to this day. Together with its offspring, the AFL has comprised the longest lasting and most influential labor federation in the United States.
Samuel Gompers (Wikipedia) (Born in London, UK on January 27, 1850 and died on December 13, 1924) He was an American labor union leader, a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL), and served as that organization's president from 1886 to 1894 and from 1895 until his death in 1924. He promoted harmony among the different craft unions that comprised the AFL, trying to minimize jurisdictional battles. He promoted "thorough" organization and collective bargaining to secure shorter hours and higher wages, the first essential steps, he believed, to emancipating labor. He also encouraged the AFL to take political action to "elect their friends" and "defeat their enemies." During World War I, Gompers and the AFL worked with the government to avoid strikes and boost morale, while raising wage rates and expanding membership.
Homestead Strike of 1892 (Page 481) The Homestead Strike was an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. It is one of the most serious labor disputes in US history. The dispute occurred in the Pittsburgh-area town of Homestead, Pennsylvania, between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (the AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company. The final result was a major defeat for the union, and a setback for efforts to unionize steel.
Pullman strike 1894 (Page 481) The most important strike of the period took place on 1894. The Pullman Strike was a nationwide conflict between labor unions and railroads that occurred in the United States in 1894. The conflict began in the town of Pullman, Illinois on May 11 when approximately 3,000 employees of the Pullman Palace Car Company began a wildcat strike in response to recent reductions in wages, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt. The American Railway Union, the nation's first industry-wide union, led by Eugene V. Debs, subsequently became embroiled in what The New York Times described as "a struggle between the greatest and most important labor organization and the entire railroad capital" that involved some 250,000 workers in 27 states at its peak. President Grover Cleveland ordered federal troops to Chicago to end the strike, causing debate within his own cabinet about whether the President had the constitutional authority to do so. The conflict peaked on July 6, shortly after the troops' arrival in the city, and ended several days later. Civil as well as criminal charges were brought against the organizers of the strike and Debs in particular, and the Supreme Court issued a unanimous decision, In re Debs, validating Cleveland's actions. Nevertheless, President Cleveland's bid for renomination at the 1896 Democratic National Convention failed because of his response to the strike
American Railway Union (Pages 481-482) ARU was the largest union of its time, and one of the first industrial unions in the United States. It was founded on June 20, 1893, by railway workers gathered in Chicago, Illinois, and under the leadership of Eugene V. Debs (locomotive fireman and later Socialist Presidential candidate), the ARU, unlike the trade unions, incorporated a policy of unionizing all railway workers, regardless of craft or service. Within a year, the ARU had hundreds of affiliated local chapters and claimed 150,000 members, drawing much of its membership out of the craft unions. Beginning in August 1893, the Great Northern Railway cut wages repeatedly through March 1894. By April, the ARU voted to strike and shut the railroad down for 18 days, pressuring the railroad to restore the workers' wages. It was the ARU's first and only victory. Similarly, the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages five times – 30 to 70 percent – between September and March. The Company was based in the town of Pullman, Illinois (since 1889 a part of the city of Chicago), named after its owner, millionaire George Pullman. The town of Pullman was his "utopia." He owned the land, homes and stores. Workers had to live in his homes and buy from his stores, thereby ensuring virtually all wages returned directly back into his pockets. Upon cutting wages, the workers suffered greatly from this setup as rent and product prices remained the same. The workers formed a committee to express their grievances resulting in three of its members being laid off, resulting in a full stop in production on May 11, 1894. In June, the ARU convened in Chicago to discuss the ongoing Pullman Strike. On June 21, the ARU voted to join in solidarity with the strikers and boycotted Pullman cars. ARU workers refused to handle trains with Pullman cars and the boycott became a great success, especially along the transcontinental lines going west of Chicago. In response, Pullman ordered Pullman cars be attached to U.S. mail cars creating a backup of the postal service and bringing in the Federal Government. Under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890, which ruled it illegal for any business combination to restrain trade or commerce, an injunction was issued on July 2 enjoining the ARU leadership from "compelling or inducing by threats, intimidation, persuasion, force or violence, railway employees to refuse or fail to perform their duties." The next day President Cleveland ordered 20,000 federal troops to crush the strike and run the railways. By July 7, Debs and seven other ARU leaders were arrested and later tried and convicted for conspiracy to halt the free flow of mail. The strike was finally crushed while Debs spent six months in prison in Woodstock, Illinois. Pullman reopened with all union leaders sacked. During Debs' time in jail, he spent much of his time reading the literature works of Karl Marx. After Debs got out of jail he merged the ARU with the Brotherhood of the Co-operative Commonwealth to form the Social Democracy of America.
Eugene V. Debs (Pages 481-482) (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) He was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), as well as candidate for President of the United States as a member of the Social Democratic Party in 1900. Later he was a presidential candidate as a member of the Socialist Party of America in 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920. Through his presidential candidacies, as well as his work with labor movements, Debs would eventually become one of the best-known socialists in the United States. In the early part of his political career, Debs was a member of the Democratic Party of the United States. It was during this time that he was elected as a member of the Indiana General Assembly, marking the beginning of his career as a politician. After working with several smaller unions, including the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, Debs was instrumental in the founding of the American Railway Union (ARU), the nation's first industrial union. As a member of the ARU, Debs was involved and later imprisoned for his part in the famed Pullman Strike, when workers struck the Pullman Palace Car Company over a pay cut. The effects of the strike resulted in President Grover Cleveland calling members of the United States Army into Chicago, Illinois, which led to Debs' arrest and imprisonment. Debs' political views turned to socialism after he read the works of Karl Marx. He grew to be one of the most influential socialists; the reputation helping him to gain five nominations for president. During the latter part of his life, Debs was imprisoned again after being arrested and convicted under the Espionage Act of 1917 during the First Red Scare for speaking against American involvement in World War I. He was later pardoned by President Warren G. Harding, and died not long after being admitted to a sanitarium.
New immigration (Pages 492-493) Industrial expansion increased the need for labor, and this turn powerfully stimulated immigration. In 1866 and 1915 about 25 million foreigners entered the U.S. The launching in 1858 of the English liner “Great Eastern” opened a new era in transatlantic travel. The competition between the different lines stimulated traffic. Improvements in transportation produced unexpected and disruptive changes in economies of many European countries. The spreading industrial revolution and increased use of farm machinery led to the collapse of the Peasant economy of central and southern Europe. Political and religious persecutions pushed still others into the migrating stream; however, the main reason for immigration remained the desire for economic betterment. By 1870 one industrial worker in three was foreign-born. Well over half of the labor force had not been born in the U.S.
Immigration restriction (Pages 493-494) Many older Americans concluded, wrongly but understandably, that the new immigrants were incapable of becoming good citizens and should kept out. During the 1880s, large numbers of social workers, economists, and church leaders, worried by the problems that arose when so many poor immigrants flocked into cities already bursting at the seams, began to believe that some restriction should be placed in the incoming human tide. Workers, fearing the competition of people with low living standards and no bargaining power, spoke out against the “enticing of penniless and unapprised immigrants… to undermine our wages and social welfare.” Lunatics and prostitutes were not allowed to stay in the U.S. Nativism favors the interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. It may also include the re-establishment or perpetuation of such individuals or their culture. Nativism typically means opposition to immigration or efforts to lower the political or legal status of specific ethnic or cultural groups because the groups are considered hostile or alien to the natural culture, and it is assumed that they cannot be assimilated. Opposition to immigration is common in many countries because of issues of national, cultural or religious identity. These nativists dislike Catholics and other minority groups more than immigrants as such. The largest organization of America of that period was the American Protective Association, founded in 1887. They resisted mainly what its members called “The Catholic menace.” The Protestant majority treated “new” immigrants as underling (inferior), tried to keep them out of the best jobs, and discouraged their efforts to climb the social ladder. Nowhere in America did prejudice lead to interference with religious freedom and neither labor leaders took a foreign position. Nativist movements included the Know Nothing or American Party of the 1850s, the Immigration Restriction League of the 1890s, the anti-Asian movements in the West, resulting in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and the "Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907" by which Japan's government stopped emigration to the U.S. Labor unions were strong supporters of Chinese exclusion and limits on immigration, because of fears that they would lower wages and make it harder to organize unions.
Chinese exclusion Act of 1882 (Page 434) Beginning in the mid-1850s a steady flow of Chinese migrated to the U.S., most of them to the West coast. About a 4 to 5 thousand a year came but with the Treaty of 1868, which was to provide cheap labor for railroad construction crews, the annual influx doubled. When Chinese immigration increased in 1882 to nearly 40,000, the protests reached such a peak that Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, prohibiting all Chinese immigration for 10 years. Later legislation extended the ban indefinitely. This law was overturned on 1943.
Literacy Test (Page 495-496) Strong support for a literacy test for admission developed in the 1890s, bushed by a new organization, the Immigration Restriction League. Since there was much more illiteracy in the southern quarter of Europe than in the northwestern, such a test would discriminate w/o seeming to do so on national of racial grounds. A literacy bill test passed both houses of Congress in 1897 but President Cleveland vetoed it. Only those who can read and write might be admitted (in their language or some other). This test was harder for Italians, Russians, and Greeks. It was easier for English speaking, Scandinavians, Germans or the French. Cleveland said this was not a test of ability but a test of opportunity.
*National Farmers Alliance & Industrial Union (Northern & Southern Alliance) The Farmers' Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement amongst U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. One of its goals was to end the adverse effects of the crop-lien system on farmers after the Civil War. First formed in 1876 in Lampasas, Texas, the Alliance was designed to promote higher commodity prices through collective action by groups of individual farmers. The movement was strongest in the South, and was widely popular before it was destroyed by the power of commodity brokers. Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1892.
*Populist Party (Figures involved) (Pages 544 – 546) The People's Party, also known as the "Populists" was a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1887. The party did not remain a lasting feature most probably because it had been so closely identified with the free silver movement which was not meaningful for urban voters. Currency ceased to become a major issue as the U.S came out of the recession of the 1890s. The very term "populist" has since become a generic term in the U.S. for politics which appeals to the common in opposition to established interests. The Populists were the first political party in the United States to actively include women in their affairs.
Presidential election of 1896 – Key facts of the campaign (Pages 548-) Ignatius Donnelly (Pages 545 & 546) Part of the Populist Party, the “Minnesota Sage”, who claimed to be an authority on science, economics, and Shakespeare (he believed that Francis Bacon wrote the plays). He ran for Governor of Minnesota and finished a dismal third. He also wrote the futuristic political novel, The Golden Bottle and made 150 speeches vowing to make the campaign “the liveliest ever seen” in the state. *Edward Bellamy (Pages 474, 475, 505 & 508) Looking Backward which sold over a million copies in its first few years, described a future America that was completely socialized, all economic activity carefully planned. Bellamy compared nineteenth-century society to a lumbering stagecoach upon which the favored few rode in comfort while the mass of the people hauled them along life’s route. *Henry George (Pages 473, 474, 475, 515, 545) Progress and Poverty a forthright attack on the uneven distribution of wealth in the United States. George argued that labor was the true and only source of capital. Observing the speculative fever of the West, which enabled landowners to reap profits merely by holding property while population increased, George proposed a property tax that would confiscate this “unearned increment.” William McKinley (Pages 548-553 & 590-591) *Marcus Alonzo Hanna (Pages 549) He was an Ohio businessman that managed McKinley’s campaign. He aspired to be a kingmaker and early fastened on McKinley, whose charm he found irresistible, as the vehicle for satisfying his ambition. Wm. Jennings Bryan (Pages 547-548) Campaign of 1896 (Pages 548-553) Joseph Pulitzer (Pages 527, 528 & 594) Wm Randall Hearst (Pages 527 & 594)
The De Lome Letter (Page 595) The De Lôme Letter, which set off an 1898 diplomatic incident, was written by Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish Minister with the Portfolio of Cuba. In a personal letter, he referred to the US President: "...McKinley is weak and catering to the rabble and, besides, a low politician who desires to leave a door open to himself and to stand well with the jingos of his party." On February 9, 1898, the letter was published in the New York Journal, headlining it "the end of the world started this day." This event fired up an otherwise inactive President McKinley and helped stir public sentiment in favor of the Cuban Junta and against the Spanish, and is seen as one of the principal triggers of the Spanish-American War of 1898. Whilst the State Department was demanding for De Lôme's dismissal, De Lôme had already cabled his resignation to Madrid. United States officials realized that what Yellow journalism had construed of the De Lôme letter were to a large extent, mere exaggerations of a comic diplomatic blunder. The leaking of the De Lôme letter is often attributed as one of the key events leading to the Spanish-American War. Shortly thereafter Hearst’s New York Journal printed a letter written to a friend in Cuba by the Spanish Minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lome. The letter had been stolen by a spy. De Lome, an experienced but arrogant diplomat, failed to appreciate McKinley’s efforts to avoid intervening in Cuba. In the letter he characterized the president as a politicastro, or “small-time politician,” which was a gross error, and a “bidder for the admiration of the crowd,” which was equally insulting though somewhat closer to the truth.
The Maine (Battleship) (Page 586, 587, & 595) It was ordered by President McKinley to protect American Citizens in the Havana Harbor due to the riots that broke out in Havana in January 1898. The Maine exploded and sank in Havana Harbor in February 15 of 1898, 260 of the crew perishing in the disaster. No one has ever discovered what actually happened. A naval court of inquiry decided that the vessel had been sunk by a submarine mine, but it now seems more likely that an internal explosion destroyed the Maine.
The Teller Amendment (Page 596) The Teller Amendment was an amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 19, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition of the United States military in Cuba. According to the clause, the U.S. could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people." A rider to the 1898 war resolution with Spain whereby Congress pledged that it did not intended to annex Cuba and that would recognize Cuba independence from Spain. An amendment proposed by Senator Henry M. Teller disclaiming any intention of adding Cuban territory to the United States passed without opposition. Four days after passage of the amendment, Spain declared war on the United States.
Capt. Alfred T. Mahan (The Influence of Sea Power upon History) (Pages 589-590) Due to the condition of the U.S. Navy’s ships (they were obsolete wooden sailing vessels) Mahan developed a starling theory about the importance of sea power. He explained this theory in two important books: The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890) and The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire (1892). According to Mahan, history proved that a nation with a powerful navy and the overseas bases necessary to maintain it would be invulnerable in war and prosperous in time of peace. In 1883 Commodore Stephen B. Luce helped pushed through Congress an act authorizing the building of 3 steel warships, and he consistently advocated expanding and modernizing the fleet. Mahan said: “Sea power is essential to the greatness of every splendid people.”
Emilio Aguinaldo (Page 599-600) Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War that resisted American occupation. Aguinaldo became the Philippines' first President. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's president, and the longest-lived (having survived to age 94). The insurgent First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan and endured until the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic.
*Seward's Folly (588-589?) The purchase of Alaska from Russia at the time for 7.2 Million in 1867 was known as “Seward’s Folly” or “Seward’s Icebox”. This purchase ridded the continent of another foreign power.
Election of 1900 (Pages 599 & 600) (Pages 599 & 600)
Queen Liliuokalani (Hawaii) (Pages 592 & 593)
The Muckrakers (journalists) (Page 558) A term for progressive investigative journalists who exposed the seamy side of American life at the turn of the 20th century by “racking up the muck.” A muckraker is, primarily, a reporter or writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports involving a host of social issues, broadly including crime and corruption and often involving elected officials, political leaders and influential members of business and industry. The term is closely associated with a number of important writers who emerged in the 1890s through the 1930s, a period roughly concurrent with the Progressive Era in the United States. These writers focused on issues including—the monopoly of Standard Oil, cattle processing and meat packing, child labor, patent medicines, wage, laborand working conditions in industry and agriculture. In a number of instances, the revelations of muckraking journalists led to public outcry, governmental and legal investigations, and, in some cases, legislation was enacted to address the issues the writers' identified, such as—harmful social conditions, pollution, food and product safety standards, sexual harassment, unfair labor practices, fraud and other matters. The work of the muckrakers in the early years, and those today, span a wide array of legal, social, ethical and public policy concerns. While he may never have used the term himself, origin of the term "muckraker" is attributed President Theodore Roosevelt, who, during a speech delivered on April 14, 1906, drew on a character from John Bunyan’s 1678 classic, Pilgrim’s Progress, saying:“... you may recall the description of the Man with the Muck-rake, the man who could look no way but downward with the muck-rake in his hands; Who was offered a celestial crown for his muck-rake, but who would neither look up nor regard the crown he was offered, but continued to rake to himself the filth of the floor.” The term eventually came to be used in reference to investigative journalists who reported about and exposed issues such as—crime, fraud, waste, public-health and safety, graft, illegal financial practices—when found within American and, by association, with foreign interests involved, for example, as partners and co-conspirators. A muckraker's reporting may span businesses and government generally, especially where such have elements of both involved in the same report. Despite its literal connotations, muckraker became a term of honor.
Upton Sinclair (Novel The Jungle) (Page 573) In 1906 Upton Sinclair published The Jungle, a devastating expose of the filthy conditions in the Chicago slaughterhouses. Sinclair was more interested in a socialist tract than he was in meat inspection, but his book, a best seller raised a storm against the packers. After Roosevelt read The Jungle he sent to officials to Chicago to investigate.
Theodore Roosevelt "The Trustbuster" (Pages 570-572)
*Square Deal Roosevelt shared the public’s sympathy for the miners, and the threat of a coal shortage alarmed him. Early October he summoned both sides to a conference in Washington and urged them as patriotic Americans to sacrifice any “personal consideration” for the “general good.” His action enraged the coal operators, for they believed he was trying to force them to recognize the union. They refused even to speak to the UMW representatives (United Mine Workers) at the conference and demanded that Roosevelt end the strike by force and bring suit against the union under the Sherman Act. He announced that unless a settlement was reached promptly, he would order federal troops into the anthracite regions, not to break the strike but to seize and operate the mines. The threat of government intervention brought the owners to terms. The miners would return to the pits and all issues between them and the coal companies would be submitted for settlement to a commission appointed by Roosevelt. Both sides accepted the arrangement, and the men went back to work. In March 1903 the commission granted the miners a 10 percent wage increase and a nine-hour workday. In Roosevelt’s words, everyone had received a Square Deal.
*Forest Reserve Act (Wikipedia) The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 allowed the President of the United States to set aside forest reserves from the land in the public domain. Passed by the United States Congress under Benjamin Harrison's administration. Harrison put 13 million acres (53,000 km2) of land into National Forests; Grover Cleveland put in 25 million acres (100,000 km2) and William McKinley put in 7 million acres (28,000 km2).
Gifford Pinchot (Page 576)
* Federal Reserve Act of 1913 (Page 579) A 1913 law establishing a Federal Reserve Board, which controlled the rediscount rate and thus the money supply; this helped regularize the national banking system.
*Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (Page 605) The first step was to get rid of the old Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with Great Britain, which barred the United States from building a canal on its own. In 1901, Lord Pauncefote, the British ambassador, and Secretary of State John Hay negotiated an agreement abrogating the Clayton-Bulwer pact and giving the United States the right to build and, by implication, fortify a trasisthmian waterway. The United States agreed in turn to maintain any such canal “free and open to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations.”
*New Panama Canal Co. (Pages 593, 605-607) The New Panama Canal Company had taken over the franchise of the old De Lesseps Company and was asking $109 Million for its assets, which the commission valued at only $40 Million. Lacking another potential purchaser, the French company lowered its price to $40 Million and after a great deal of clever propagandizing by Bunau-Varilla, President Roosevelt settled on the Panamanian route.
*Phillipe Bunau-Varilla (Panama Canal engineer) (Page 606) A French engineer with heavy investments in the New Panama Canal Company.
Progressive Era & Progressives (What did they stand for (Page 555-557 ?)
Progressive Concerns Big Business Control.