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Technology and the future Technology affects all levels of the industry -Production (non computer technology) OLD SFX Computer tech - digital production Imagery - "new" SFX - CGI Technology affects all levels of the industry. -distribution -satellite (piracy) -hardware- 70mm digital Exhibition DIgital viewing Special events (birthday room) 3d Movies
Working in movies The core of the movie industry is production. -Producers -Screen Writers (screen writers guild) Directors(DGA) Actors(Screen actors guild) Production people (Behind he Scenes) Marketers (posters ad campaign Administrators
Offsetting costs in the movie industry To offset costs producers marker ancillary rights, Such as: Streaming Pay TV (HBO) Network TV (CBS) (Network pays) Airlines, military bases, college campuses. Book rights (As far as 50s and 60s ) Merchandising action figures posters (DARTH VADER) DVDs digital copies
The Business of Movies Today -Movies are the most fragmented industry, created from/by numerous sources.(True stories, books, comic books, new ideas, sports, TV shows) Movies producers don't wanna take a risk, Founded by investors (several production companies) Production companies studios biggest chunk. Sold by distributaries. Shown by exhibitors. It can take years for movies to take off. Most movie studios are now part of conglomerates or cross-media Companies. Movies are really risky and expensice Only2 out of 10 makes money Avg. cost to make a movie is $70.8 million (2007) (MPAA) -Last 'official' numbers: likely over $100 million (2017) -Avg. Cost to market a movie is $35.9 million (2007) Last official numbers probably over $70 million in (2017) Studios choose "safe" projects Guaranteed to make money (secondary rights)
Movies in the 1990s -Home alone 1990 #Box Office Draw -Why? Latch-key kids/working parents Gulf war Technology Moms at war (patriot missile vs. Scud(Technology makes you safe)) Discourse theory "Home alone cases" The movie released, more cases.
Movies in the 60's Affect and Reflect The graduate (1967) was one of the biggest box office draws of the 60's (counter culture) Satire of the American Dream (Main character is a college grad with an uncertain future)
Movies in the 50's -Affect or Reflect? -Westerns were a popular genre.. Many westerns represented traditional values. Others challenged values (Broken Arrow, 1950) -High noon 1952 (racial tolerance) -Fear of ideologues -community and individualism
3-D movies First 3D movie -Bwana Devil Glasses Brains (optical cones and rods. We have two hemispheres, one side processes one eye, a red lenses matches with a green with the projector causes it to look 3D. Modern uses silver to polarize. (mixture of smells ruined smello-vision) (recreated in theme parks)
Todd-AO (American Optical) -Michael Todd & Brian O'Brien (chief engineer) -35 millimeter film the usual size, the Todd-AO used a twice the size film
Cinerama & Cinemascope Cinerama was five booths for projectors, curved screen. bigger pictures. Cinemascope special wide angle lens. Flat screen (big screen/curved)
Hollywood, late 190s-40s -8major studios controlled film production, distribution and exhibition -"Big Five" -Metro Goldwyn Mayer(M-G-M) -Paramount -Little three (Columbia, universal, RKO) THey all owned movie theaters US v. paramount Pictures (1938) (and other 8 (et. all) Justice Dept sues major studios for monopoly US drops suit (1940) when studios agree to: -limit block booking(for other theaters to take movies they know nothing about) -Stop requiring theaters rent short films (get it, send back) Stop buying movie theater WWII stopped case for a little bit U.S. Reinstitutes case 1948 US orders studios to sell their theaters this starts to demise of the studio system By early 1950smovie attendance -television -Suburbs /car culture 5000 sit-down theaters go out of business 4700 new "drive-ins" To combat declining attendance studios useda variety of new technology wide screen formays -Cinerama -CinemaScope -Todd-AO -Stereo sound -Color -3-D film
The Great Depression and Movies 1 out of 4 people out of work Movie attendance drops Studios response - musicals (gold diggers of 1933) - Gangster Picture (little Caesar) - Few pictures dealt directly with problems.
A brief History of Sound film The myths (talkies) -Films were silent -The Jazz singer, was the first sound movie. Saved warner brothers from bankruptcy some stars were ruined because of bad voices. The Truths -Movies almost always had music accompaniment Organ orchestra Many people worked on developing sound movies Fox and warner bros had competing systems in 20s Warner bros weren't going bankrupt Stars who didn't make the transition to sound (Lon Chaney. SR.) Harry Langdon. (John Gilbert) By sept 1929 All other major studios have switched to sound
Extra Early studios moved to hollyood because of Cheap land Good weather Variety of close by … D.W> Griffith (1875 - 1948) (Kentucky) - Early career 1907 Edison. 1908 - Biograph Billy bitzer Griffiths camera man. 1912 makes first 60 minute film.
Edwin S Porter(1870 -1941) -works for Edison (1897 - 1909) - The great Trian Robbery (1903) + Color. Robbery/violence. Music. SFX -background. Sets. Parallel Action. - Dummy No talking Bullet holes
Motion Picture Patent Company the first attempt to control all levels of the film industry - production - distribution - exhibition incorporated January 1st, 1909 (officially) Ten film companies 'pooled' patents. eight film studious, 2 distributors. Lose control by 1913. Ruled a monopoly.
Vitascope 1896 (projector) (Edison bought it) Based, in part, on patent by Jenkins and Armat. 1st projected movies in US Koster & Bial's music hall, NYC April 23, 1896 Showed along with other acts.
Lumiere Brothers Auguste - 1862- 1954 Louis - 1864 -1948 1st projected movies in the world, (france) December 28, 1895 (movies almost died several times)
Celluloid film George Eastman (1854 -1932) Film and Camera, 1888 (Kodak) (William Kieth Laury) 1847-1931 WKL Dickson Thomas Edison 1860 - 1935 Both helped invent the movie camera. In NJ was the first movie studio, dubbed It the "Black Maria." In west orange. A horse drawn wagon with bars- black Maria. (Kinetoscope (1889)
The Race Horse Myth / Truth. Eadweard Muybridge, 1830-1904 Animal locomotion studies in 1877 This process used multiple cameras. The race horse MYTH Ireland Stanford had a bet for $25,000 about a race horse's gait. Apparently, worth over $1/2 million in 2017. He hired Eadweard Muybridge to settle the bet. Some accounts say Stanford won, others say he lost. Race Horse TRUTH. The bet never happened. Pictures were taken at Stanford's ranch. Stanford's real interest was in studying horses. By understanding their behavior, he hoped to improve breeding and training methods. (Muybridge's Zoopraxiscope)
Photography Joseph Niepce creates first photograph in 1826. It took eight hours to get exposure. First photo was taken in Austin, Texas. In 1829, he forms a partnership with Louis Daguerre. 1833, Niepce dies. Louis Daguerre 1787 - 1851. 1839, announces "daguerreotype" Other forms would replace daguerreotypes (1850s-present)
Technological Precursors to Movies Zeotrope(wheel of life) Magic Lantern photography -Zeotrope and Praxinoscope(motion) (work off the idea of 'persistence of motion) -Projector: (Magic lantern) used magic lantern slide, put it in, appears on screen