Overview of Metabolism Lecture


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What type of metabolism is the most efficient form? Oxidative metabolism
With decreased O2, what type of metabolic process takes place? Glycolysis only- little ATP
Efficient metabolism and energy production depend on what two bodily features? lungs and circulation
Fuels are taken in from food and stored in body tissues. Name the metabolic principle. Metabolic Principle #2
We "tend" to retain stored fat until it is needed for starvation (or even an overnight). This is the definition of what? Fuel Sparing
A high caloric diet can raise what fuel in the circulation? FFA's (free fatty acids)
The metabolism of fatty acids and glucose both generate what? acetyl CoA
According to metabolic principle #1, what is limited in metabolism?? Limited number of metabolic fuels (Carbs, Fatty Acids and Ketone Bodies, Proteins, Glycerol, Lactate, Ethanol)
What is the metabolic pathway of carbs? Glucose-Glycolysis-Acetyl CoA-TCA-OxPhos
What is the metabolic pathway of fatty acids? Acetyl CoA-TCA-Ox Phos
What is the metabolic pathway of proteins? AA-TCA-Ox Phos
What is the relationship between triglycerides and the liver? It can make them but cannot store them.
Liver is capable of almost everything except it does not use what energy source? Ketone bodies
What is a red blood cell lacking a nucleus
Red blood cells rely solely on what metabolic activity? glycolysis.
The brain prefers this energy source but mainly uses this other source Prefers keto acids but primarily uses glucose
The brain does not utilize this energy source fatty acids
What is the list of muscle energy source in order of priority 1) Fatty acids 2) Keto acids 3) Glucose
What metabolic activity is unnecessary for muscle if you have ample Free fatty acids? glycolysis
What is the highest fuel in tissue in terms of percent of total calories? Adipose Triglyceride (Fat)
What is the highest fuel in circulating blood in terms of percent of total calories glucose (extracellular fluid)
between carbs and fat, which is more energy efficient? Fats
Fats produce about how many moles of ATP per mole of palmitate 129
What occupies the largest portion of an adipose cell? Triglycerides
According to Metabolic Principle #4, this concept is critical during starvation "Fuel Sparing"
after 5-6 days of starvation, what happens to urine output? Why? It decreases dramatically because less urea means less protein breakdown.
The concentrations of which fuel will increase in prolonged fast? FFA and Ketone bodies
What are the three classifications of body types? Ecto, Meso, Endo Morphs (Skinny, Normal Build/Fit, Heavy Set)
Possible mechanisms of type II diabetes include malfunctions/deficiencies in what two mechanisms? Insulin signaling and glucose transporters
What determines the availability of glucose transporters at the plasma membrane? Insulin
Glycolysis requires glucose to enter the cells through glucose transporters
How do fatty acids decrease the oxidative metabolism of glucose A high fat diet leads to an excess of Acetyl CoA from FFA metabolism that can slow down reactions in glycolysis backing up the glycolytic pathway causing product inhibition of all steps
What causes stomach enlargement in kwashiokor? Albumin is made by the liver and it keeps fluids within the CV system. As albumin goes down in protein deficiency, fluid leaks into the abdominal cavity
Hips cannot broaden and hormonal development is stifled in this disorder anorexia
Children with epilepsy are put on what kind of diet? Ketogenic diet
What technique is used to reduce pathology in epileptic children? Mimic metabolic starvation
Insulin resistance has what affect on glycolysis and glucose levels? decreases glycolysis and increase blood glucose
A herald, or precursor to other life-threatening pathologies, this illness combines diabetes, obesity and more Metabolic Syndrome
High extra/intra-cellular glucose can lead to what? oxidative stress
High triglyceride stores (in visceral fatty tissues) can lead to what chronic inflammation
Oxidative-inflammatory cascade is what kind of reaction/mechanism? A positive feedback loop
Quercitin, a flavanoid from apple skins, berries, was used in an energy drink. How did its effects compare to the placebo? The placebo test subjects had improved performance too
Name the metabolic disease with an amino acid issue causing a concave breast bone, blindness and shorter life span Homocystinuria
In phenyketonuria (disease) you cannot clear phenylalanine because you cannot convert it to what compound? Tyrosine
A disease common in eastern European Jews that is an inability to process glycolipids Tay-Sachs Disease
How do you detect tay-sachs disease? Cherry spot on retina